Reference List

The factsheets and information contained on this website were developed and/or reviewed by researchers at the Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, University of Sydney, and the National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University. The following sources were used to inform the content on Cracks in the Ice:

  • Abdoli, N., Farnia, V., Salemi, S., Tatari, F., Juibari, T.A., Alikhani, M., & Basanj, B. (2018). Efficacy of the Marlatt cognitive-behavioral model on decreasing relapse and craving in women with methamphetamine dependence: A clinical trial. Journal of Substance Use, 24(2), 229-232. DOI: 10.1080/14659891.2018.1549279
  • Altshuler, S. J., & Cleverly-Thomas, A. (2011). What do we know about Drug Endangered children when they are first placed into care? Child Welfare, 90(3), 45-68. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22403900
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017). Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS NMDS). Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/about-our-data/our-data-collections/alcohol-and-other-drug-treatment-services
  • Arunogiri, S., Foulds, J. A., McKetin, R., & Lubman, D. I. (2018). A systematic review of risk factors for methamphetamine-associated psychosis. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry52(6), 514-529. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417748750
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2017, March). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 1. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2017, July). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 2. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2017, November). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 3. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2018, March). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 4. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2018, August). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 5. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2018, December). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 6. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2019, April). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 7. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2019, August). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 8. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. (2020, March). National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program, Report 9. Retrieved from: https://www.acic.gov.au/publications/reports/national-wastewater-drug-monitoring-program-reports
  • Australian Drug Foundation. (2016). Amphetamines. Retrieved from: https://adf.org.au/drug-facts/amphetamines/
  • Australian General Practice Network. (2007). Management of patients with psychostimulant use problems: Guidelines for general practitioners.Retrieved from: http://360edge.com.au/assets/uploads/2017/06/psychostimnts_gp1.pdf
  • Australian Institute of Family Studies. (2008). Reporting child abuse and neglect. Retrieved from: https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/reporting-abuse-and-neglect
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2008). 2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey: detailed findings. (No. PHE 107). Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/59dd97b5-a40b-47cf-99bd-7f0dd860fd1d/ndshs07-df.pdf.aspx?inline=true
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2014). National Drug Strategy Household Survey detailed report 2013. (No. PHE 183). Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/c2e94ca2-7ce8-496f-a765-94c55c774d2b/16835_1.pdf.aspx?inline=true
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017). National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: Key Findings. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/illicit-use-of-drugs/ndshs-2016-key-findings/contents/summary
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020). National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019: Key Findings. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/illicit-use-of-drugs/national-drug-strategy-household-survey-2019/contents/table-of-contents
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2019). Alcohol and other drug use in regional and remote Australia: consumption, harms and access to treatment, 2016–17. (No. HSE 212). Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/78ea0b3d-4478-4a1f-a02a-3e3b5175e5d8/aihw-hse-212.pdf.aspx?inline=true
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Australia’s health, 2018. (No. 16. AUS 221). Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2018/contents/table-of-contents
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2017–18: key findings. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services/aodts-2017-18-key-findings/contents/summary
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2016–17: key findings. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services/aodts-2016-17-key-findings/data
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia, (No: PHE 221). Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia/contents/introduction
  • Barone, V., Greene, F., Lutzker, R. (1986). Home safety with families being treated for child-abuse and neglect. Behavior Modification,10(1), 93-114. https://doi.org/10.1177/01454455860101006
  • B., Fink, H., Rothe, J., Walstab, J. & Bönisch, H. (2008). Learning and memory in 5-HT1A-receptor mutant mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 195(1), 78-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2008.02.028
  • Beyond Blue. (2018). When someone you care about won’t seek support. Retrieved from: https://www.beyondblue.org.au/personal-best/pillar/supporting-others/when-someone-you-care-about-wont-seek-support
  • Black, E. (2014). Polydrug use: What you need to know about mixing drugs. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Blau, G. M., Whewell, M. C., Gullotta, T. P., & Bloom, M. (1994). The prevention and treatment of child abuse in households of substance abusers: A research demonstration progress report. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program, 73(1), 83–94.
  • Bonomo, Y., Norman, A., Biondo, S., Bruno, R., Daglish, M., Dawe, S., … Castle, D. (2019). The Australian drug harms ranking study. Journal of Psychopharmacology33(7), 759–768. https://doi.org/1177/0269881119841569
  • Brener, L., Lea, T., Rance, J., Wilson, H., Bryant, J & Ezard, N. (2018). Providing a model of health care service to stimulant users in Sydney. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 25(2), 130-137, DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2016.1221061
  • Brown, J. & Hohman, M. (2006). The Impact of Methamphetamine Use on Parenting. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6 (1-2), 63-88. DOI: 1300/J160v06n01_04
  • Carlson, B. E., Williams, L. R., & Shafer, M. S. (2012). Methamphetamine-Involved Parents in the Child Welfare System: Are They More Challenging Than Other Substance-Involved Parents? Journal of Public Child Welfare, 6(3), 280-295. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548732.2012.683361
  • Chan, B., Freeman, M., Kondo, K., Ayers, C. Montgomery, J., Paynter, R. & Kansagara, D. (2019). Pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine/ampthetamine use disorder-a systematic review and meta-analysis. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14755.
  • Chiang, M., Lombardi, D., Du, J., Makrum, U., Sitthichai, R., Harrington, A., Shukair, N., Zhao, M. & Fan, X. (2019). Methamphetamine‐associated psychosis: Clinical presentation, biological basis, and treatment options. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 34(4). 1002/hup.2710
  • Controlled Substances Act 1984 (SA).
  • Corsi, K.F., Shoptaw, S., Alishahi, M. & Booth, R. E. (2019). Interventions to Reduce Drug Use Among Methamphetamine Users at Risk for HIV.Current HIV/AIDS Reports 16, 29-36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00423-y
  • Criminal Code Act 1995 (AUS).
  • D'Arcy, C., Luevano, J. E., Miranda-Arango, M., Pipkin, J. A., Jackson, J. A., Castañeda, E., & O'Dell, L. E. (2016). Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration up-regulates dopamine transporter levels 72 hours after withdrawal in rats. Behavioural brain research296, 125–128. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.010
  • Darke, S., Lappin, J., Kaye, S. & Duflou, J. (2018), Clinical Characteristics of Fatal Methamphetamine‐related Stroke: A National Study. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63(3), 735-739. doi:1111/1556-4029.13620
  • Darke, S., Kaye, S., & Duflou, J. (2017) Rates, characteristics and circumstances of methamphetamine-related death in Australia: a national 7-year study. Addiction, 112(12) DOI:10.1111/add.13897.
  • Darke S., Torok M., McKetin R., Kaye S. & Ross J. (2011). Patterns of psychological distress related to regular methamphetamine and opioid use. Addiction Research & Theory, 19(2). DOI: 3109/16066351003695631
  • Darke S., Kaye S., McKetin R. & Duflou J. (2008). The major physical and psychological harms of methamphetamine use. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27(3), 253-262. DOI: 1080/09595230801923702
  • Degenhardt, L. , Sara, G., McKetin, R., Roxburgh, A., Dobbins, T., Farrell, M., Burns, L. & Hall, W. (2016). Crystalline methamphetamine use and methamphetamine-related harms in Australia. Drug and Alcohol Review. 36,160-170. DOI:1111/dar.12426
  • Degenhardt, L., Larney, S., Chan, G., Dobbins, T., Weier, M., Roxburgh, A., Hall, W., & McKetin, R. (2016). Estimating the number of regular and dependent methamphetamine users in Australia 2002-2014. Medical Journal of Australia, 204(4). DOI: 10.5694/mja15.00671
  • De Giorgi, R., Cassar, C., Loreto D’alò, G., Ciabattini, M., Minozzi, S., Economou, A., Tambelli, R., Lucchese, F., Saulle, R., Amato, L., Janiri, L. & De Crescenzo, F. (2018). Psychosocial interventions in stimulant use disorders: a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of randomized controlled trials.Rivista di Psichiatria 53(5), 233-255.
  • DeLisi, M., Drury, A. J., & Elbert, M. J. (2019). Parent Exposure to Drugs: A “New” Adverse Childhood Experience With Devastating Behavioral Consequences. Journal of Drug Issues49(1), 91–105. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022042618805738
  • Denehy, J. (2006). The Meth Epidemic: Its Effect on Children and Communities. The Journal of School Nursing, 22(2), 63–65. https://doi.org/10.1177/105984050602200201
  • Dowling, C., & Morgan, A. (2018). Is methamphetamine use associated with domestic violence? Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice No. 563. Retrieved from: https://aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi563
  • Drug Info. (2010). The facts about roadside testing. Melbourne: State Government Victorian Department of Health.
  • Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985 (NSW).
  • Drugs Misuse Act 1986 (QLD).
  • Drugs of Act 1989 (ACT).
  • Drugs, Poisons and Controlled Substances Act 1981 (VIC).
  • Duflou, J. (2019). Psychostimulant use disorder and the heart. Addiction, 115, 175-183. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14713
  • Durbin, K. (2003). Expert to discuss plight of meth kids. Columbian. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/253195338?accountid=12763
  • Dyba, J., Moesgen, D., Klein, M. & Leyendecker, B. (2018). Mothers and fathers in treatment for methamphetamine addiction—Parenting, parental stress, and children at risk. Child & Family Social Work, 24, 106-114. https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12587
  • Environmental Health Standing Committee (enHealth), Department of Health (2015). NSW Remediation Guidelines for Clandestine Drug Laboratories and Hydroponic Drug Plantation. Retrieved from: https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/environment/hazard/Documents/clan-lab-guidelines.pdf
  • España, R. A., Schmeichel, B. E., & Berridge, C. W. (2016). Norepinephrine at the nexus of arousal, motivation and relapse. Brain research1641(Pt B), 207–216. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2016.01.002
  • Family Drug Support and the National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction. (2014). Walking a tightrope. Alcohol and other drug support: A guide for families. Retrieved from: http://www.fds.org.au/images/FDS/NCETA_Walking_a_Tightrope.pdf
  • Foulds, J.A., Boden, J. M., McKetin, R., & Newton-Howes, G. (2020). Methamphetamine use and violence: Findings from a longitudinal birth cohort. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 207, 10782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107826
  • Gaudin, J. M., Wodarski, J. S., Arkinson, M. K., & Avery, L. S. (1990-1991). Remedying child neglect: Effectiveness of social network interventions. Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 15(1), 97–123. Retrieved from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1991-19464-001
  • Goldsmid, S., Johnston, I., Kapira, M., Claydon, C., Petricevic, M., & Webber, K. (2017). Australian methamphetamine user outcomes. (Statistical Bulletin 03). Retrieved from: https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/sb/sb003
  • Gordon, D. G. & Jong, G. (2018), Gaps in the ice: Methamphetamine in Australia; its history, treatment, and ramifications for users and their families. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27(6), 1861-1868. doi:10.1111/inm.12480
  • Gossop, M., Darke, S., Griffiths, P., Hando, J., Powis, B., Hall, W., & Strang, J. (1995). The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS): Psychometric properties of the SDS in English and Australian samples of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine users. Addiction, 90, 607-14. DOI:1046/j.1360-0443.1995.9056072.x
  • Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., Härtel-Petri, R., Hamdorf, W., Havemann-Reinecke, U., Mühlig, S. & Wodarz, N. (2017). Clinical practice guideline: Methamphetamine-related disorders. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 114, 455–61. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2017.0455
  • Grigg J., Manning V., Arunogiri S., Volpe I., Frei M., Phan V., Rubenis A., Dias S., Petrie M., Sharkey M. & Lubman D. I. (2018). Methamphetamine Treatment Guidelines: Practice Guidelines for Health Professionals (Second Edition). Retrieved from: https://www.turningpoint.org.au/treatment/clinicians/methamphetamine-treatment-guidelines
  • Guerin, N. & White, V. (2018). ASSAD 2017 Statistics & Trends: Australian Secondary Students’ Use of Tobacco, Alcohol, Over-the-counter Drugs, and Illicit Substances. Cancer Council Victoria.
  • Haight, W., Jacobsen, T., Black, J. Kingery, L., Sheridan, K., & Mulder, C. (2005). In these bleak days: Parent methamphetamine abuse and child welfare in the rural midwest. Children and Youth Services Review, 27(8), 949-971. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.12.025
  • Hayward, R., DePanfilis, D. & Woodruff, K. (2010). Parental Methamphetamine Use and Implications for Child Welfare Intervention: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 4(1), pp.25-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548730903563095
  • Hohman, M., Oliver, R., & Wright, W. (2004). Methamphetamine abuse and manufacture: The child welfare response. Social Work, 49(3), 373-382. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/49.3.373
  • Hughes, C. (2014). Drugs and the law: What you need to know.Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. (2016). GBD Results Tool. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington. Retrieved from: http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool
  • Irvine, G. D., & Chin, L. (1991). Methamphetamine abuse: Epidemiologic issues and implications. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from: https://archives.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/monograph115.pdf
  • Isoardi, K. Z., Ayles, S. F., Harris, K. , Finch, C. J. & Page, C. B. (2019). Methamphetamine presentations to an emergency department: Management and complications. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 31(4), 593-599 doi:10.1111/1742-6723.13219
  • Jacka, B., Kemp, R., Degenhardt, L., Peacock, A., Clare, P., Bruno, R., Dev, A., Sotade, O. & Larance, B. (2019). Trends in methamphetamine and opioid use among clients of needle‐syringe programs in Queensland, Australia: 2007–2015.Drug and Alcohol Review, 38(2), 159-168. doi:1111/dar.12908
  • Jenner, L., & Lee, N. (2008). Responding to challenging situations related to the use of psychostimulants: A practical guide for frontline workers. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.
  • Jenner, L., Baker, A., Whyte, I., & Carr, V. (2004). Psychostimulants: Management of acute behavioural disturbances. Guidelines for police services. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.
  • Jensen, C. D., Cushing, C. C., Aylward, B. S., Craig, J. T., Sorell, D. M., & Steele, R. G. (2011). Effectiveness of interviewing interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(4), 433–440. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023992
  • Johnson, J. L., & Leff, M. (1999). Children of substance abusers: Overview of research findings. Pediatrics, 103(5), 1085-99. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10224196
  • Jones, R., User, K., & Woods, C. (2019). Crystal methamphetamine's impact on frontline emergency services in Victoria, Australia. Australasian Emergency Care, 22(4), 201-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.auec.2019.07.004
  • Kamp, F., Proebstl, L., Hager, L., Schreiber, A., Riebschläger, M., Neumann, S., Straif, M., Schacht-Jablonowsky, M., Manz, K., Soyka, M., & Koller, G. (2019). Effectiveness of methamphetamine abuse treatment: Predictors of treatment completion and comparison of two residential treatment programs.Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 201, 8-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.04.010
  • Karch S. B., Stephens B. G. & Ho C. H. (1999). Methamphetamine‐related deaths in San Francisco: demographic, pathologic, and toxicological profiles. Journal of Forensic Science, 44(2), 359-68. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10097363
  • Karlsson, A. & Burns, L. (2018). Australian Drug Trends 2017. Findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS). Australian Drug Trend Series. No. 181. Sydney, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Australia.
  • Kaye S., Darke S., McKetin R. & Duflou J. (2008). Methamphetamine related fatalities in Australia: demographics, circumstances, toxicology and major organ pathology. Addiction, 103(8), 1353–60. DOI:1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02231.x
  • Kay-Lambkin, F. (2008). The stepped care model: A useful intervention strategy for people who use methamphetamine. Retrieved from: https://cracksintheice.org.au/doc/stepped-care-model.pdf
  • Lanyon, C., Nambiar, D., Higgs, P., Dietze, P., & Quinn, B. (2019). Five-year Changes in Methamphetamine Use, Dependence, and Remission in a Community-recruited Cohort. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 13(2), 159-165. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000469
  • Lappin, J.M., Darke, S. & Farrell, M. (2017). Stroke and methamphetamine use in young adults: a review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 88(12), 1079-1091. DOI:1136/jnnp-2017-316071
  • Lappin, J.M. & Sara, G. E. (2019). Psychostimulant use and the brain. Addiction, 114(11), 2065-2077. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14708
  • Lee, N., Jenner, L., & Ross, P. (2017). Beyond the tip of the iceberg: A practitioners' guide to ice. Retrieved from: https://www.360edge.com.au/resources/
  • Lemos, N. P. (2009). Methamphetamine and driving. Science & Justice, 49(4), pp.247-249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2009.09.014
  • Lineberry, W. & Bostwick, M. (2006). Methamphetamine abuse: A perfect storm of complications. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 81(1), pp.77-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4065/81.1.77
  • Logan, B. K., Fligner, C. L. & Haddix, T. (1998). Cause and manner of death in fatalities involving methamphetamine. Journal of Forensic Science, 43, 28–34.
  • Logan, B. (1996). Methamphetamine and Driving Impairment. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 41(3), 457-64.
  • Mann, A., & Wagstaff, C. (2019). Psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine use and the associated mental health symptoms. Advances in Dual Diagnosis, 12(3) p 132-144.
  • Marel, C., Mills, K.L., Kingston, R., Gournay, K., Deady, M., Kay-Lambkin, F., Baker, A., & Teesson, M. (2016). Guidelines on the management of co-occurring alcohol and other drug and mental health conditions in alcohol and other drug treatment settings (2nd edition), pp. 181-182. Sydney, Australia: Centre of Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales. The Guidelines were funded by the Australian Government Department of Health.
  • Massey, T., & Verikos, G. (2019). Australia’s ice crisis and the detrimental mental health effects of recent use.Economic Analysis and Policy, 64, Pages 26-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2019.07.004
  • McKellar, A. (2009). National Association of School Psychologists. Communique; Bethesda. Bethesda: National Association of School Psychologists, 37 (8), p. 124-26.
  • McKetin, R., Leung, J., Stockings, E., Huo, Y., Foulds, J., Lappin, J.M., Cumming, C., Arunogiri, S., Young, J.T., Sara, G., Farrell, M., & Degenhardt, L. (2019). Mental health outcomes associated with of the use of amphetamines: A systematic review and meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine, 16https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.09.014
  • McKetin, R., Voce, A., Burns, R., & Shanahan, M. (2019). Health-related quality of life among people who use methamphetamine. Drug and Alcohol Review, 38, 502-509. DOI: 10.1111/dar.12934
  • McKetin, R., Kothe, A., Baker, A., Lee, N., Ross, J. & Lubman, D. (2017). Predicting abstinence from methamphetamine use after residential rehabilitation: Findings from the Methamphetamine Treatment Evaluation Study. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37, 70–78. DOI: 10.1111/dar.12528
  • McKetin, R., & Black, E. (2014). Methamphetamine: What you need to know about speed, ice, crystal, base and meth. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales. Retrieved from: https://sydney.edu.au/content/dam/corporate/documents/research/matilda-centre/methamphetamine-resources.pdf
  • McKetin, R., Lubman, D.I., Najman, J.M., Dawe, S., Butterworth, P., & Baker, A.L. (2014). Does methamphetamine use increase violence behaviour? Evidence from a prospective longitudinal study. Addiction, 109(5), 798-806. DOI: 1111/add.12474
  • Mental Health First Aid Australia. (2013). Helping someone with drug use problems: Mental health first aid guidelines. Retrieved from: https://mhfa.com.au/mental-health-first-aid-guidelines
  • Misuse of Drugs Act 1981 (WA).
  • Misuse of Drugs Act 2001 (TAS).
  • Misuse of Drugs Act 2016 (NT).
  • Mokhtari, T., Sheikhazadi, A., Hassanzadeh, G., Safari, M., Sheikhbahaei, F., Faghir-Ghanesefat, H. & Rezaei, M. (2018). Potential adverse effects of amphetamines on kidney; a narrative review on current knowledge. Journal of Renal Injury Prevention, 7(4), 218-223. Doi: 10.15171/jrip.2018.51.
  • Moeller, S., Huttner, H. B., Struffert, T., Müller, H. H. (2016). Irreversible brain damage caused by methamphetamine. Alcoholism and Drug Addiction, 29, 39-41 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alkona.2016.02.001
  • National Cannabis Prevention and Intervention Centre. (2014). Parents: How to help. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction. (2015). "Ice" and the workplace. Retrieved from: http://nceta.flinders.edu.au/files/3014/3130/6035/EN593.pdf
  • Nordahl, T. E., Salo, R. & Leamon, M. (2003). Neuropsychological effects of chronic methamphetamine use on neurotransmitters and cognition: a review. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences,15(3), 317-25. DOI: 1176/jnp.15.3.317
  • NSW Health. (2015). Crystalline Methamphetamine Background Paper – NSW Data, September 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.hsnet.nsw.gov.au/system/files/Crystalline%20Methamphetamine%20-%20Background%20Paper.pdf
  • O’Donnell, A., Addison, M., Spencer, L., Zurhold, H., Rosenkranz, M., McGovern, R., Gilvarry, E., Martens, M., Verthein, U. & Kaner, E. (2018). Which individual, social and environmental influences shape key phases in the amphetamine type stimulant use trajectory? A systematic narrative review and thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature. Addiction, 114, 24-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14434
  • O’Hern S. &Oxley J. (2018). Fatal cyclist crashes in Australia. Traffic Injury Prevention, 19, S71-S31. DOI: 1080/15389588.2018.1497166
  • Ostler, T., Haight, W. & Black, J. (2007). Mental health outcomes and perspectives of rural children raised by parents who abuse methamphetamine. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(4), pp.500-507.
  • Peacock, A., Uporova, J., Karlsson, A., Gibbs, D., Swanton, R., Kelly, G., Price, O., Bruno, R., Dietze, P., Lenton, S., Salom, C., Degenhardt, L., & Farrell, M. (2019). Australian Drug Trends 2019: Key Findings from the National Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) Interviews. Retrieved from: https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/sites/default/files/National%20IDRS%20Interview%20Report%202019_0.pdf
  • Pearson-Dennett, V., Faulkner, P. L., Collie, B., Wilcox, R.A., Vogel, A.P., Thewlis, D., Esterman, A., McDonnell, M.N., Gandevia, S.C., White, J.M. & Todd, G. (2019). Use of illicit amphetamines is associated with long-lasting changes in hand circuitry and control. Clinical Neurophysiology, 130(5), 655–665. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2019.02.005
  • Peck, Y., Clough, A.R., Culshaw, P.N., & Liddell, M.J. (2019). Multi-drug cocktails: Impurities in commonly used illicit drugs seized by police in Queensland, Australia. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 201, p49–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.03.019
  • Positive Choices. (2016). Climate Schools: Psycho-stimulant and cannabis module. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). Drug education: Parent booklet. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). Helping someone who has taken an illegal drug. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). How can I tell if someone is using drugs? National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). How can parents and schools prevent drug-related harms?. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). How parents can protect against drug use. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). How to help a friend or family member with a drug problem. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). How to put someone in the recovery position. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). Making Choices. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). Pure Rush interactive game. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). School-based drug prevention: What works? National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). Starting the conversation about drug use. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). What are the warning signs of dependence on drugs? National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Positive Choices. (2016). Why do young people use drugs? National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Ramirez, R. L., Perez, V. D. J. & Zamanian, R. T.(2018). Methamphetamine and the risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 24(5), p 416–424. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000513
  • Redona, P., Jackson, D., Woods, C. & Usher, K. (2019). Increasing use of stimulants in Australia: Cause for health services concern. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 28(4), 795-797. doi:10.1111/inm.12636
  • Jaffee, S. R., & Gallop, R. (2007). Social, emotional, and academic competence among children who have had contact with child protective services: prevalence and stability estimates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry46(6), 757–765. https://doi.org/10.1097/chi.0b013e318040b247
  • Roche, A. & McEntee, A. (2016), Ice and the outback: Patterns and prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 25(4), 200-209. doi:10.1111/ajr.12331
  • Roxburgh, A. & Burns, L. (2012). Cocaine and methamphetamine related drug-induced deaths in Australia, 2008. Retrieved from: https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/sites/default/files/ndarc/resources/Cocaine%20and%20Methamphetamine%20related%20drug-induced%20deaths%20in%20Australia%2C%202011.pdf
  • Roxburgh A., Dobbins, T., Degenhardt, L. & Peacock, A. (2018). Opioid-, amphetamine-, and cocaine-induced deaths in Australia: August 2018. Retrieved from: https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/resource/opioid-amphetamine-and-cocaine-induced-deaths-australia-august-2018
  • Rusyniak D. E. (2011). Neurologic manifestations of chronic methamphetamine abuse. Neurologic clinics29(3), 641–655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2011.05.004
  • Sabrini, S., Wang, G.Y., Lin, J.C., Ian, J.K. & Curley L.E. (2018). Methamphetamine use and cognitive function: A systematic review of neuroimaging research. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 194, 75–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.08.041
  • Schmidt, M., Dillon, P. J., Jackson, B. M., Pirkey, P, Kedia, S. K. (2018). “Gave me a line of ice and I got hooked”: Exploring narratives of initiating methamphetamine use. Public Health Nursing, 36, 18–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12568
  • Schultz, W. (2001). Reward signalling by dopamine neurons. Neuroscientist, 7 (4), pp. 293-302. DOI: 1177/107385840100700406
  • Stafford, J. & Breen, C. (2015). Australian Drug Trends 2015: Findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS). Australian Drug Trends Series. No. 145. Sydney, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Stapinski, L.S., Reda, B., Newton, N., Lawler, S., Rodriguez, D., Chapman, C. & Teesson, M. (2017). Development and evaluation of 'Pure Rush': An online serious game for drug education. Drug and Alcohol Review
  • St Vincent's Hospital. (2014). Guidelines for the acute assessment and management of amphetamine-type stimulant intoxication and toxicity. Melbourne: St Vincent's Hospital, Nexus, and VDDI.
  • Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration. (2003). Children living with substance abusing or substance parents. NHSDA Report. Retrieved from https://www.datafiles.samhsa.gov/study-publication/children-living-substance-abusing-or-substance-dependent-parents-nid16847
  • Swant, J., Chirwa, S., Stanwood, G., & Khoshbouei, H. (2010). Methamphetamine reduces LTP and increases baseline synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus. PloS one5(6), e11382. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011382
  • Swetlow, K., & United States. (2003). Children at clandestine methamphetamine labs: Helping meth's youngest victims. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime.
  • The Other Talk. (2013). How do I start the conversation? Australian Drug Foundation.
  • The Stroke Foundation Australia. https://strokefoundation.org.au/
  • Topp, L., & Mattick, R.P. (1997). Choosing a cut-off on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for amphetamine users. Addiction, 92(7),839-45. 
  • Unadkat, A., Subasinghe, S., Harvey, R. J., & Castle, D. J. (2019). Methamphetamine use in patients presenting to emergency departments and psychiatric inpatient facilities: what are the service implications? Australasian Psychiatry, 27(1), 14–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/1039856218810155
  • Voce, A., Calabria, B., Burns, R., Castle, D., & McKetin, R. (2019). A Systematic Review of the Symptom Profile and Course of Methamphetamine-Associated Substance Use & Misuse, 54(4), p. 549-559. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2018.1521430
  • Volkow, N. D., Chang, L., Wang, G. J., Fowler, J. S., Leonido-Yee, M., Franceschi, D., ... Miller, E. N. (2001). Association of dopamine transporter reduction with psychomotor impairment in methamphetamine abusers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(3), 377-382. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.3.377
  • Volkow, N. D., Chang, L., Wang, G. J., Fowler, J. S., Ding, Y. S., Sedler, M., ... Pappas, N. (2001). Low level of brain dopamine D2 in methamphetamine abusers: Association with metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(12), 2015-2021. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.12.2015
  • Walsh, C., MacMillan, H. L., & Jamieson, E. (2003). The relationship between parental substance abuse and child maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(12), 1409–1425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.07.002
  • Wang, Y., Chou, J., Jeng, C. H., Morales, M., & Wang, J. Y. (2000). Chronic methamphetamine exposure decreases high affinity uptake function in norepinephrine afferents in the cerebellar cortex: An electrophysiological and electrochemical study. Neuropharmacology, 39(11), 2112-2123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3908(00)00021-6
  • Youth Drugs and Alcohol Advice. (n.d.) Support Options.
  • Zhang, Y., Sun, Y., Yu, Z., Sun, Y., Chang, X., Lu, L., Chang, S., & Shi, J. (2019). Risk factors and an early prediction model for persistent methamphetamine-related psychiatric symptoms. Addiction Biology, 25, e12709. DOI: 1111/adb.12709
Page last reviewed: Thursday, 16 July 2020

Get the latest ice facts on your phone Google Play Store Apple Store